Azerbaijan is a democratic republic. The president is the head of the state. Ilham Aliyev has been the president of Azerbaijan since October, 2003. The Supreme Legislative Organ is the parliament. In 1991 Azerbaijan has left the Soviet Union and gained independence.
The official language is the Azerbaijani language (belongs to the family of Turkic languages). Russian and English languages are widely used in the capital and other regional centres of the republic.
According to the current constitution Azerbaijan is a secular country – religion is separate from the state and consists of the sum of the religious movements spread among the nationalities and ethnic groups that currently live in the territory of the country. There are various religious confessions in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Islam is the religion of the majority of the population. As a multinational country there are Jewish, Orthodox and Catholic communities in Azerbaijan.
UTC +04:00, (Prime meridian; calculated from midnight, 4 hours behind Baku time) Summer time
Azerbaijan has unique natural resources: nine out of 11 main climate zones existing in the world are available in Azerbaijan – from subtropical to high alpine meadows. The average temperature in July fluctuates between +5 C in the highlands and +27 C in the lowlands and in January it ranges from – 10 C to +3 C. The maximum summer temperatures can reach 45 C, whereas in winter temperature in the mountains can drop to – 40 C at night. Annual precipitation is 200 mm on the slopes of the Greater Caucasus to 1,200-1,700 mm in the Lankaran lowlands. The best time of year to visit the country is between April and October. Average temperature in July in high areas is between +5˚ and +25˚ - +27˚ degrees and +32˚ - +35˚ degrees at the maximum and average temperature in January is -10˚ - -4˚ degrees.